Waterborne Diseases are caused by pathogenic micro-organisms most commonly transmitted in contaminated water. Infection can occur during bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food or the consumption of food thus infected. Over the past decade, the Public Health issues associated with water related diseases & infections has been ever-increasing; whilst the emergence of new water related infection diseases & the re-emergence of old dormant ones is problematic.
Waterborne disease & infection has a serious impact on a local & national economy; in particular were the infection reaches outbreak levels. Related costs include: medical treatment & medication, special transportation of replacement clean water, closure of facilities be it short or medium term duration, loss of manpower & associated costs inherent with unwarranted deaths.
Clean water is a pre-requisite for reducing the spread of water-borne infection. It is well recognized that water disinfection is required to kill any pathogens that may be present in the water supply & to prevent them growing again in the water distribution systems. The most common methods to kill water-borne micro-organisms is the oxidation of water with chlorine, irradiation through UV, thermal flushing/flushing of water distribution system at regular intervals, promotion of effective hygiene procedures eg hand-washing, & the use & installation of proper water delivery systems ie wash basin, shower & sanitary appliances.